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What did Justin Martyr teach?

Justin Martyr was born around 100 AD and was martyred around 165 AD.  He has two complete surviving literary works. He teaches a lot about understanding John ch1 and the Logos.  He has the earliest and most detailed description of how the earliest church functioned in an organized manner.  He had a very good debate with a highly popular Jewish scribe (The Dialog) and wrote letters to the Emperor of Rome and a Senate member.  Fragments of another letter specifically about The Resurrection remains as well.

He is within the time frame of speaking with eye witnesses, family members recounting eye witness testimonies, and the disciples of the Apostles.  Thus his insights are extremely important.

Justin was the mentor for other predominate Christan church leaders such as Irenaeus. 


Summery of what he taught:
  • Jesus is God
  • Christology of the Old Testament
  • Jesus was a man.
  • Jesus was the Son of God
  • The Trinity
  • Jesus' Virgin Birth
  • Jesus' bodily death, resurrection, and ascension
  • Unconditional Election
  • Limited Atonement
  • Salvation through Faith Alone
  • Actual place of Hell and Heaven
  • Actual Demons and Satan
  • Symbolism of Baptism and Communion
  • The essential  elements of the Gospel message
Read his writings in their entirety here:  
  1. Roberts-Donaldson English Translation: On the Resurrection
  2. Roberts-Donaldson English Translation: Dialogue with Trypho 
  3. Roberts-Donaldson English Translation: First Apology
His teachings are systematically organized by subject and topic: 

The crucifixion

1:12was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judaea, in the times of Tiberius Caesar
1:21was crucified and died
1:32 " crucified, and dying, and rising again, 
1:33 "Jesus Christ stretched forth His hands, being crucified by the Jews speaking against Him, and denying that He was the Christ. And as the prophet spoke, they tormented Him, and set Him on the judgment-seat, and said, Judge us. And the expression, "They pierced my hands and my feet," was used in reference to the nails of the cross which were fixed in His hands and feet. And after He was crucified they cast lots upon His vesture, and they that crucified Him parted it among them. And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate."

The Resurrection:

1:21 "and died, and rose again
1:32 " crucified, and dying, and rising again,
1:45 "God the Father of all would bring Christ to heaven after He had raised Him from the dead
Fragments on a while work on the bodily Resurrection of Jesus.

Public profession of faith

1:4 "For as some who have been taught by the Master, Christ, not to deny Him, give encouragement to others when they are put to the question"

Sexual Immorality

1:5 "the poets who have flourished among you raise a laugh out of the uncleanness of Jupiter with his own children. And those who now adopt such instruction are not restrained by you; but, on the contrary, you bestow prizes and honours upon those who euphoniously insult the gods"
1:14 "-we who formerly delighted in fornication, but now embrace chastity alone"
1:27 "we have been taught that to expose newly-born children is the part of wicked men; and this we have been taught lest we should do any one an injury, and lest we should sin against God, first, because we see that almost all so exposed (not only the girls, but also the males) are brought up to prostitution. And as the ancients are said to have reared herds of oxen, or goats, or sheep, or grazing horses, so now we see you rear children only for this shameful use; and for this pollution a multitude of females and hermaphrodites, and those who commit unmentionable iniquities, are found in every nation... any one who uses such persons, besides the godless and infamous and impure intercourse, may possibly be having intercourse with his own child, or relative, or brother. And there are some who prostitute even their own children and wives, and some are openly mutilated for the purpose of sodomy... Indeed, the things which you do openly and with applause, as if the divine light were overturned and extinguished, these you lay to our charge; which, in truth, does no harm to us who shrink from doing any such things, but only to those who do them and bear false witness against us. "

Humanity of Jesus

1:4 also among the Barbarians were they condemned by Reason (or the Word, the Logos) Himself, who took shape, and became man, and was called Jesus Christ

Jesus, Son of God

1:6 " the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues, who is free from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son"
1:12 " the Word, than whom, after God who begat Him... Teacher foretold, He who is both Son and Apostle of God the Father of all and the Ruler, Jesus Christ; from whom also we have the name of Christians... follow the only unbegotten God through His Son"
1:22 "the Son of God called Jesus, even if only a man by ordinary generation, yet, on account of His wisdom, is worthy to be called the Son of God"
1:23 Jesus Christ is the only proper Son who has been begotten by God, being His Word and first-begotten, and power; and, becoming man according to His will, He taught us these things for the conversion and restoration of the human race

Divinity of Jesus

1:5 also among the Barbarians were they condemned by Reason (or the Word, the Logos) Himself, who took shape, and became man, and was called Jesus Christ
D33, 35

Accountability 

1:5  in obedience to Him, we not only deny that they who did such things as these are gods, but assert that they are wicked and impious demons, whose actions will not bear comparison with those even of men desirous of virtue

1:7 "For all are called Christians. Wherefore we demand that the deeds of all those who are accused to you be judged, in order that each one who is convicted may be punished as an evil-doer, and not as a Christian;"

The Trinity

1:6 "respect to the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues, who is free from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son (who came forth from Him and taught us these things, and the host of the other good angels who follow and are made like to Him), and the prophetic Spirit, we worship"
1:12 "Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judaea, in the times of Tiberius Caesar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove"
1:52 in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit,

God's All Seeing

1:12 "all other men are we your helpers and allies in promoting peace, seeing that we hold this view, that it is alike impossible for the wicked, the covetous, the conspirator, and for the virtuous, to escape the notice of God"

Prosperity

1:10 "we have received by tradition that God does not need the material offerings which men can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the provider of all things."
1:14 "we who valued above all things the acquisition of wealth and possessions, now bring what we have into a common stock, and communicate to every one in need"

Election

1:11 " For the coming into being at first was not in our own power; and in order that we may follow those things which please Him, choosing them by means of the rational faculties He has Himself endowed us with, He both persuades us and leads us to faith"
1:45 "until the number of those who are foreknown by Him as good and virtuous is complete, on whose account He has still delayed the consummation"

Salvation through faith not works

 1:12 "demons whom we have been accusing should deceive you, and quite diver you from reading and understanding what we say. For they strive to hold you their slaves and servants; and sometimes by appearances in dreams, and sometimes by magical impositions, they subdue all who make no strong opposing effort for their own salvation."
D:10 "[jewish response] this is what we are most at a loss about: that you, professing to be pious, and supposing yourselves better than others, are not in any particular separated from them, and do not alter your mode of living from the nations, in that you observe no festivals or sabbaths, and do not have the rite of circumcision; and further, resting your hopes on a man that was crucified, you yet expect to obtain some good thing from God, while you do not obey His commandments."
D:26 Trypho remarked, "What is this you say? that none of us shall inherit anything on the holy mountain of God?"And I replied, "I do not say so; but those who have persecuted and do persecute Christ, if they do not repent, shall not inherit anything on the holy mountain.


Actual Heaven and Hell

1:12 "each man goes to everlasting punishment or salvation"
1:18 "hell is a place where those are to be punished who have lived wickedly, and who do not believe that those things which God has taught us by Christ will come to pass."

Actual demons

1:12 " we are persuaded that these things are prompted by evil spirits, who demand sacrifices and service even from those who live unreasonably... demons whom we have been accusing should deceive you, and quite diver you from reading and understanding what we say. For they strive to hold you their slaves and servants; and sometimes by appearances in dreams, and sometimes by magical impositions, they subdue all who make no strong opposing effort for their own salvation."
1:28 "the prince of the wicked spirits is called the serpent, and Satan, and the devil, as you can learn by looking into our writings."

The Gospel

1:12 "Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judaea, in the times of Tiberius Caesar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove"
1:21 "the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven"
1:32 "In these books, then, of the prophets we found Jesus our Christ foretold as coming, born of a virgin, growing up to man's estate, and healing every disease and every sickness, and raising the dead, and being hated, and unrecognised, and crucified, and dying, and rising again, and ascending into heaven, and being, and being called, the Son of God."
1:56 "Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration."

Virgin Birth

1:21 "the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union
1:32 "In these books, then, of the prophets we found Jesus our Christ foretold as coming, born of a virgin,
1:33 "Isaiah in express words foretold that He should be born of a virgin; for he spoke thus: "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bring forth a son, and they shall say for His name, 'God with us.'... the power of God having come upon the virgin, overshadowed her, and caused her while yet a virgin to conceive. And the angel of God who was sent to the same virgin at that time brought her good news, saying, "Behold, thou shalt conceive of the Holy Ghost, and shalt bear a Son, and He shall be called the Son of the Highest, and thou shalt call His name Jesus; for He shall save His people from their sins,"--as they who have recorded all that concerns our Saviour Jesus Christ

Atonement

D:13 ""For Isaiah did not send you to a bath, there to wash away murder and other sins, which not even all the water of the sea were sufficient to purge; but, as might have been expected, this was that saving bath of the olden time which followed s those who repented, and who no longer were purified by the blood of goats and of sheep, or by the ashes of an heifer, or by the offerings of fine flour, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and through His death, who died for this very reason,"

Future Bodily Resurrection

1:18 "firmly than they believe in God; since we expect to receive again our own bodies, though they be dead and cast into the earth... should in God's appointed time rise again and put on incorruption"

Unbelievers doing signs and wonders

1:26 "There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitto, who in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him.

Name dropping

1:48 And, as we said before, the devils put forward Marcion of Pontus, who is even now teaching men to deny that God is the maker of all things in heaven and on earth, and that the Christ predicted by the prophets is His Son, and preaches another god besides the Creator of all, and likewise another son.

Fasting, Baptism, Communion

1:56 As many as are persuaded and believe that what we teach and say is true, and undertake to be able to live accordingly, are instructed to pray and to entreat God with fasting, for the remission of their sins that are past, we praying and fasting with them. Then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated.
1:55 " bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands... this food is called among us Eukaristia [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. "

Church

1:55 "to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized [illuminated] person, and for all others in every place... Having ended the prayers, we salute one another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands. And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. "
1:56 "on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons... Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. "

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